• Can is a modal verb. It only has a present form (which can be used with future meaning) and a past or conditional form (could).
  • For all other tenses and forms, we use be able to + infinitive.
  • Can/ can’t is a modal verb, which has a past and conditional structure (could / couldn’t), but has no present perfect or past perfect forns nor does it have an infinitive or -ing form. In these situations be able to must be used.
  • For the future you can often use can or will be able to, e.g.I can’t go to the meeting tomorrow / l won’t be able to go to the meeting tornorrow.

I cook every day. – I can cook quite well.

She cooks every day – She can cook very well

Do you cook every day? “Yes, I do” or “No, I don’t”

Can you cook well? “Yes, I can” or “No, I can’t”

Modal ⇒ hability, posibility, obligation, advice.

Be able to: ser capaz de

Be able to do sth: ser capaz de hacer algo

I would like to travel. – I would like to be able to cook.

I hate travelling. – I hate not being able to cook.

I have never travelled to Italy. – I have never been able to cook.

I will travel. – I will be able to cook.



Interview your partner:

Can you …?

Play a musical instrument, ski, dance salsa, swin, cook, create a website, sing, ride a horse, sail, speak a foreign language (apart from English), drive,…

If your partner answer: Yes, I can:

How well?

When did you learn?

How did you learn?

Did you find it easy or difficult?

If your partner answer: No, I can’t:

Would you like to learn? (or: Would you like to able to?)

Why (not)?



– the -ing adjective is used for a person or thing who causes the feeling.
– the -ed adjective is used for the person who has the feeling. In other words a boring person makes us feel bored.

The film was boring – The audience were bored (los espectadores estaban aburridos “bored”, lo que no quiere decir que los espectadores eran aburridos, estaban aburridos a causa de una película que sí era aburrida).



Los pronombres reflexivos se usan cuando el sujeto y el complemento del verbo son lo mismo. En inglés no se utilizan los verbos reflexivos tanto como en español. En vez de verbos reflexivos, se utilizan uno de los siguientes pronombres reflexivos: Myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves.

Reflexive pronouns are made by adding self (or selves in the plural) to the possessive adjective (my, your, etc.). The exceptions are himself and themselves where self/selves are added to the object pronouns him and them.

Los verbos más comunes con los que se utilizan son: blame (culpar, echar la culpa a), cut (cortar), enjoy (disfrutar),
help (ayudar), hurt (hacerse daño), introduce (presentarse), prepare (preparar), teach (enseñar)

He taught himself many of the languages with “teach yourself” books: Aprendió por sí mismo, por sí solo (literalmente, se enseñó a sí mismo) muchos de los lenguajes con libros de “autoaprendizaje”

We enjoyed the party a lot. – We enjoyed ourselves a lot (Nos los pasamos muy bien): Es un error muy común en español el omitir el reflexivo, cuando en español muchos de estos verbos son reflexivos.



Vocabulary and expresions

I’ve always wanted to learn: Siempre he querido aprender

To succeed: tener éxito ≠ to fail (fracasar)

Successful (exitoso) ≠ unsuccessful (infructuoso)

To blame: culpar

Blame (noum): culpa

Give up = stop trying

Join in the conversation = take part in the conversation

A tip: a piece of advice

The lyrics words (the lyrics letters)

Somebody’s mother tongue: la lengua materna de alguien

Be bilingual

Fluently ≅ eassily

Be fluent in English


A link to ≅ conexion

Tactless: sin tacto

Vain: vano, presumido

Scenary /’si:nərɪ/ = landscape beautiful (cuando las palabras llevan “sc”, la “c” no se pronuncia).

Frightened /’fraɪtənd/ of = afraid of = scared of



(Nota: la página 40 del libro no la vimos, no hace falta estudiarla o mirarla)



+ Have to + infinitive ⇒ obligation, necessity

– Not have to + infinitive ⇒ lack of (falta de, aunsencia de) obligation or necessity

I can’t go out. I have to study. – She can’t go out. She has to study.

I can hear you perfectly, you don’t need to shout. = I can hear you perfectly, you don’t have to shout.

Have you ever had to do an exam? Have you ever had to have an oposition?

I love swimming (love + verb + -ing) (La conjugación de esta forma con have to es igual) ⇒

I love having to get up (o lo contrario: I love not having to get up)

En la forma afirmativa have to y must son similares, incluso intercambiables:

Have to (tener que) ≅ must (deber)

En la forma negativa, no es así, not have to do (no es necesario hacer, no hay por qué hacer, no se tiene por qué hacer) y musn’t do (no se debe hacer):

Not have to (no hay por qué…, no es necesario…, no se tiene por qué…) ≠ mustn’t (no debes…, en sentido de prohibición).

¿Y cuándo hay que utilizar “must” y cuándo “have to”? Si hablas de una responsabilidad o de una necesidad, algo que asumes por decisión propia, elige “must”, como en “I must go to bed early” (Debo irme pronto a la cama). En cambio, para una obligación que viene desde el exterior, como la que te puede imponer tu padre, tu jefe o hasta el Gobierno, el verbo indicado es “have to”, como en “I have to pay taxes” (Tengo que pagar impuestos).

Must: responsabilidad – Have to: obligación (muchas veces impuesta)

Si en afirmativo “must” y “have to” se parecen, en negativo no tienen nada que ver. Cuando usamos “mustn’t”, hablamos de una prohibición: “You mustn’t call me” es “No debes llamarme (bajo ninguna circunstancia)”. Sin embargo, “don’t have to“, nos habla de algo que no es necesario, de lo que no hay obligación; por ejemplo, “You don’t have to call me today” (No hace falta que me llames hoy).

El futuro de must no existe, pero sí se puede utilizar “must” con sentido de futuro incluyendo simplemente una referencia al momento en cuestión. Por ejemplo, “I must be there at 12 o’clock tomorrow” (Debo estar allí mañana a las 12 en punto). También se puede emplear “must” con la expresión “in future” (de ahora en adelante), como “I must be careful in future” (Debo tener más cuidado de ahora en adelante).

Por lo demás, must, es un verbo modal, que no tiene conjugación, sólo se puede usar en presente y con sentido de futuro. Para expresar, por ejemplo, el pasado, o cualquier otra conjugación, en la que queramos decir “deber” o “tener que”, hay que recurrir a “had to”:

I had to work late: Tuve que trabajar hasta tarde.

Have you ever had to work late?: ¿Has tenido alguna vez que trabajar hasta tarde?

I love having to work late: Me encanta tener que trabajar hasta tarde. (Ejem, es sólo un ejemplo)

I’ll have to work late: Tendré que trabajar hasta tarde.

Must y mustn’t también se emplean para forma conclusiones lógicas, cuando deducimos que algo está pasando:

He always looks tired → He must work very hard (Debe de trabajar muy duro)

She isn’t answering the door → She mustn’t be at home (No debe de estar en casa)

Las conclusiones lógicas en negativo también pueden expresarse con “can’t” para indicar un matiz más fuerte. Por ejemplo, en lugar de decir “She mustn’t be at home”, se podría usar “She can’t be at home”, lo que indica que “It’s impossible that she’s at home”.

Para referirse a “algo que no te puedes perder”: “It’s a must”, convirtiendo a must en sustantivo: The Prado museum is a must for anyone visiting Madrid.

Con respecto a should y shouldn’t, como ya sabemos se traduce por deberías o no deberías de, con un matiz muy distinto a must y have to, pues con should ya no se expresa prohibición, y rebaja la obligación a la categoría de consejo, o también sirve para dar una opinión.



Classify the following structures according to what they express.

a) You can…

b) You can’t…

c) You must…

d) You mustn’t…

e) You have to…

f) You don’t have to…

g) You should…

h) You shouldn’t…

i) It’s allowed to…

j) It isn’t allowed to…

k) You don’t need to…




…wear a seat belt




…sing your favourite song

Advice (+)



…sleep well before a journey

No obligation


…wear your reflective vest on

(unless you get out of the ar)




…use your mobile phone

Advice (-)



…eat too much during a journey


Obligation: You must / You have to wear a seat belt

No obligation: You don’t have to /You don’t need to wear your reflective vest on

Permission: You can/It’s allowed to sing your favourite song

Prohibition: You can’t/ You musn’t /It isn’t allowed to use your mobile phone

Advice (+): You should sleep well before a journey

Advice (-): You shouldn’t eat too much during a journey

Complete the sentences bellow using one of the verbs provided and the verb in brackets in the correct form and tense. Sometimes there is more than one possibility.

have to / must

a) I’m getting quite fat and unfit. I really __________________(cut) down on sweet things,

b) I don’t usually work at weekends, but last Saturday I _______________ (work).

c) __________________________ (you / run) to get there on time. “Yes, I wa nearly late”.

d) I forgot to phone David yesterday. I __________________ (call) him up later today.

have to / should / can

e) In order to get your driving license you _______________ (pass) a test.

f) I don’t think you _______________ (wear) that dress for the job interview. It’s too informal.

g) _______________________ (she / have) a passport to travel to France? “I don’t think so”.

h) You ___________________ (take) my car. If you want. I don’t need it today.

i) I _________________________ (walk) home last night. There were no buses.

j) You _____________________ (switch) on your mobile now. The class is over.

can’t  / shouldn’t

k) I’m afraid we ________________ (park) here. It’s not allowed.

l) We _________________ (serve) spicy food. Peter doesn’t like it much.

m) You are not well this morning. You _______________ (go) to school.

n) My son ______________ (eat) that, he is alergic to nuts.

mustn’t / not have to

o) Don’t worry, you ___________________ (pick) up the children from school. I’tll do it.

p) Careful, Nick! You _______________ (use) that knife. It’s very dangerous.

q) There’s no school tomorrow so I _______________ (get) up early.

r) You _______________ (tell) Sue what happened. I don’t want her to know.


a) have to cut down / must cut down

b) had to work

c) Did you have to run

d) I (‘ll) have to call / I must call (se puede poner en presente, puesto que incorpora una partícula de futuro “later today”).

e) have to pass

f) should wear

g) Does she have to have

h) can take

i) had to walk

j) can switch

k) can’t park

l) shouldn’t serve

m) shouldn’t

n) can’t eat

o) don’t have to pick up

p) mustn’t use

q) don’t have to get

r) mustn’t tell



To have god/bad manners

It is good/bad manners to do sth

It isn’t allowed to do sth

It isn’t necessary/obligation

It’s a question of manners

When driving is it compulsory to…..?

When driving is it obligatory to do sth?

Can you…?

To allow (/ə’ləʊ/) sb to do sth (permitir a alguien hacer algo)

It is (not) allowed to do sth ⇒ passive tense (forma pasiva)

It is good manners/polite to do sth

It is bad manners/impolite/rude to do sth

It is a good/bad manners → Esta expresión nunca va precedida de artículo indefinido

It is rude to speak with your mouth full (Es de mala educación hablar con la boca llena)

Pass me the salt (please) → No good manners (in UK)

Can/Could you pass me the salt (pelase)? → – polite

Would you mind passing me the salt, please? → + polite



Con la estructura del “reading” de la página 120 del libro “Living without a TV”.

Advantages (para enumerarlas podemos utilizar también las siguientes expresiones):

The first/main advantage is that….

Another advantage is…

Disadvantages (y para enumerar éstas, las siguientes otras):

On the other hand…


Also = What’s more = Besides = Something else (además).

(La introducción propuesta es opcional).

MY COMPOSITION (una vez corregida)


A smartphone is a mobile phone with an advanced operating system (or OS) which mixes features of a personal computer with other traits of tablets; but is it essential to have it? I think there are both advantages and disadvantages (with regard to mobile phones and personal computers).

Firstly its screen is smaller than computer monitors but bigger than a mobile screen, which allows for portability, at the same time, as we get a good overview of APP’s and websites. Another advantage is its characteristic “all-in-one”. It acts as mobile phone if you need to make a call, to send a message or whatsapp, to be reachable, to take a photo, to record a video,… And it acts as a computer if you wish to work (with office applications, for example), to keep a calendar, to listen to radio programs, to watch TV or to use the endless existing applications.

However its autonomy is limited: you have to be charging the battery constantly, it can go dead when you need it most. Also, it could cause addiction and you could become unsociable, more worried about your smartphone than the people close to you or the world around you, exactly the same thing happens with computers and mobile phones.

In conclusion, I think a mobile phone is more practical than a smartphone, because the first has more autonomy and this last, in connection with a computer, can’t replace it.


Correct the mistakes in the following sentences:

1.- Nowadays everybody have a mobile phone.

2.- Some people spend a lot of time with the phone.

3.- It allows us be in touch with our family wherever we are.

4.- This is other important advantage.

5.- If you need make a call in an emergency,…

6.- You can access to the Internet quickly and easily.

7.- You might forget put it in silent mode and…

8.- We must do a good use of them.


1.- Nowadays everybody has a mobile phone. → Everybody (singular) has…/ Everybody is…

2.- Some people spend a lot of time on the phone.

3.- It allows us to be in touch with our famil wherever we are.

4.- This is another important advantage. → Another + singular noun / Other + plural noun

5.- If you need to make a call in an emergency,…

6.- You can access the Internet quickly and easily.

7.- You might forget to put it in silent mode and…

8.- We must make a good use of them.



Complete the sentences below using a modal verb (obligation, advice, prohibition, etc)

1.- In London, bikes cars and buses often _________________ share the roads.

2.- There are a few things everyone _________________ do to make their trip safer.

3.- You ________________ obey the rules of the road.

4.- You __________________ cycle on the pavements.

5.- You __________________ cycle through red lights.

6.- You ___________________ wear a helmet and bright clothes. Although it is not compulsory. It’s probably a good idea.

7.- You really ______________ use your phone or headphones while cycling. You _________________ be able to see and hear what is going on around you.


1.- have to

2.- can

3.- must / have to

4.- mustn’t

5.- mustn’t

6.- should

7.- shouldn’t; must/have to



Vocabulary and expresions

Whole (todo) suena igual que hole (agujero)

Doubt /dəʊt/: duda

In future: de ahora en adelante

In the future: en el futuro

Lack of: ausencia de, falta de

Engine: motor

A TV set: televisor (aparato de televisión)

Every family/car/child (not every families, cars, children)

Turn on/off = Switch on/off

Reflective clothes = Bright clothes (ropa reflectante)

A torch: linterna

A jack (a tool): gato (herramienta)

Get/have a flat tire: Tener un pinchazo

A spare wheel/room: Rueda de repuesto

When driving is it compulsory to…..?

When driving is it obligatory to do sth?

To allow (/ə’ləʊ/) sb to do sth (permitir a alguien hacer algo)

The other way around: al revés

Vice versa: viceversa (en el sentido de “a la recíproca”, no y “al revés”, para eso se usa la expresión anterior: “The other way around”)

To barp: eructar

To pour a drink: verter (líquido)

pour = /pɔː/

To complain (about sht): quejarse (de algo)

To be mad = To be crazy

To argue with sb about sth

To agree an agreement: Lllegar a un acuerdo

To split the bill: Pagar a medias

Old-fashioned: desfasado, anticuado

We’ll call it a day = Vamos a dejarlo aquí

With regard to: con respecto a



Grammar Bank

Revise and check