UNIT 3.A – RACE ACROSS LONDON

COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE (page 136)

Comparative Superlative
Old

Big

Easy

Modern

Bored

Good

Bad

Far

older

bigger

easier

more modern

more bored

better

worse

further/farther

 

the oldest

the biggest

the easiest

the most modern

the most bored

the best

the worst

the furthest/the farthest

 

Repaso de reglas gramaticales

A is (not) as big/modern/expensive as B

A is much/a bit/ a little older than B/more modern than B

She is older than  me/I am

A is the same as B

A is similar to B

A is different from (or to) B

A is older than B → A is the oldest

A is more/less interesting than B → A is the most/least interesting

A is much/a bit/a little older/more interesting than B

More slowly (adverbio, más lentamente)

More slower (adjetivo, más lento)

This is the best book I’ve ever read (es muy usual usar el superlativo en una frase que contiene la forma present perfect. Es incorrecto This is the best book I’ve never …).

 

PRACTICAL ENGLISH – Speaking

Personally, I think…

In my opinion…

To be honest…

If you ask me…

Do/don’t you agree? – I agree

What do you think? – I don’t think that’s right

What do they mean?

Agreeing & Disagreeing

Big cities are more interesting than small twons:

I agree (with you)

I think that’s right / I think you are right

I completely/totally agree

Absolutely

I don’t agree / I disagree

I don’t think that’s right / You aren’t right

I completely/totally disagree

I’m not sure that’s true

(I think), it depends (on…)

 

Remember also:

Pardon?

I’m sorry. I don’t understand.

Can you repeat please? / Can you say that again?

What do you mean?

Do you mean… (…that you didn’t like it /… that you prefer to walk / … you can’t come/ …)?

I don’t know the meaning of…

That’s it. / that’s all.

Practical speaking (modelo de enunciado de interacción de examen oral):

A BIRTHDAY PRESENT: Your partner and you want to buy a birthday present for a good friend.Consider the choices below. See which one you prefer and be prepared to say why. Talk to your partner and compare all the choices. You can also suggest something else.

Try to agree on only one present you would like to buy.

  • An e-book reader or kindle
  • A sat-nav
  • A weekend stay in a beautiful spa in the Pyrenees
  • A ticket to see an exciting sporting event
  • Some clothes

Revision exercises

Listening

Dejo los scripts y audios de dos de los tres audios que nos pusieron en la prueba de “listening” del examen de enero (no copié las preguntas, “sorry”):

1º.- Audio:

1º.- Script:

Mia

Well, it’s changed a lot, goodness, enormously. I mean thirty years ago, I was still at school. I was ten years old. Life was a lot simpler then. All I had to think about was doing my homework, and enjoying my free time with friends. I think life was simpler for everybody then. We didn’t have all this technology, and I think the pace of life was slower. At work, when someone sent a letter, it could take a week or two even before they would get a reply. Nowadays, people email, and they expect an instant response. On the same day, or within an hour or two. That puts a lot of pressure on people. We say that technology has saved us time, but it just speeds things up, and we are expected to do so much more. It’s non-stop. We have mobile phones and BlackBerries, iPhones. So we don’t just turn off and relax.

Tom

That’s an interesting question. It’s changed a lot. I live in Beijing. So there has been a huge advancement of technology, and huge growth. There are more people, with more money. There has been an economic explosion here, so the city has grown. All the offices and high-rise buildings, lots of those weren’t here thirty years ago. And it’s very multicultural nowadays. People from all over the world live in Beijing. People came from everywhere to see if they could get rich, and many of them did get rich. They made millions. I think in a lot of places out in the countryside, things haven’t changed that much. Life is quite similar to how it was before, for farmers, and their families. I suppose they have more technology now. They have mobile phones, and televisions, and the internet, so they know a lot more about the wider world, and what is going on. Thirty years ago, they just had a radio, and it was difficult to find out information. That’s much easier now.

Owen

Oh, well, both probably. The world is getting better in many ways. I think if we look at living standards across the world, obviously there are still millions of people living in terrible poverty, but I think the situation is getting better. People have better access to food and medicines, and education. So, these are all things which are improving. Medicine is improving, so people live longer, and we can fight infectious diseases. People’s lives have improved because of technology, so life is easier now than it was before. A lot of manual work is done by machines. But in some ways, the world is getting worse. War, for example, is a bigger problem all the time. There are more and more wars, which is surprising. And weapons are becoming even more dangerous. I think the environment is definitely suffering, so we are polluting more than we used to because of all the industrialisation. And I think also, socially, things are getting worse. Because people are less social now, than before. They spend more time on their own, with computers and computer games, and less time talking to others, working together, and I think that is a great shame, and a problem for the future, too.

2º.- Audio

2º.- Script:

Lo dejo en pdf (el script que corresponde al audio es el del  “Listening 1”

Writing: Mistakes from exam

Correct the mistakes in the following sentences:

  1. The Peter’s parrents thought that…
  2. He decided stay in bed until he felt better.
  3. He had to go to other town far away from his home.
  4. When they go on holiday they enjoy a lot.
  5. He is my best friend since we met at school.
  6. She learnt designing websites and found a job.
  7. He went abroad for learning a foreign language.
  8. I’m looking forward to meet Susan.
  9. If you want, a day you can come home.
  10. I’m thinking in two options.
  11. I hope your news.
  12. If I were you, I will go to a nice restaurant.

Key

1.- Peter’s parents thought that… (sin artículo delante)

2.- He decided to stay in bed until he felt better. (Decided + infinitive, siempre seguido de to + verb)

3.- He had to go to another town far away from his home. (Another town: forma en singular. Other towns: forma en plural).

4.- When they go on holiday they enjoy it a lot. (Enjoy es un verbo que requiere objeto directo: Enjoy it a lot. Enjoy themselves a lot: o la otra opción, el reflexivo en inglés).

5.- He has been my best friend since we met at school. (En present perfect).

6.- She learnt to design websites and found a job. (Learn + to + verb).

7.- He went abroad to learn a  foreign language (to learn, para aprender, infinitive of purpose = infinitivo de finalidad).

8.- I’m looking forward to meeting Susan (looking forward + to + gerundio).

9.- If you want, one day you can come home.

10.- I’m thinking about two options. (Think of sth/sb: pensar en. Think about sht/sb: considerar, barajar, pensar mucho en. Sólo se utiliza Think in, en casos como “Thinking in English/in Spanish/in French…).

11.- I’ll be waiting for your reply (porque la frase tiene sentido de esperar en un plazo de tiempo. I hope you write soon, tiene más sentido de tener esperanza, y no se puede poner hope seguido sólo de un sustantivo, sino seguido de una acción: I hope to hear from you soon).

12.- If I were you, I would go to a nice restaurant. (If I were you (si yo fuera tú) + condicional (I would go….).

COMPOSITION (page 115 Writing): A magazine article about transport

The transport in Zaragoza (corregida)

I have to go to Zaragoza regularly from Huesca. I always get to the outskirsts of the city by car and I often park in the area of Faculty of Veterinary, in South Zaragoza -finding a parking space on the crowded city streets can be a nightmare, but here, you will always find available parking spaces, and free!- then I choose the public transport to get around Zaragoza.

As there ins’t underground in Zaragoza, without doubt the quickest (or fastest) manner for getting around a city, the best option seems to take the bus. There is a large network of public buses that connects practically every point, the peripheral neighborhoods with the city center. Each ticket costs €1.35 and you have to buy a second ticket if you change of bus. You must buy the tickets in the bus, which may be incovenient. However, you can also purchase a bus card with €7 that are sold on newsstands, it is rechargeable and each journey is cheaper.

Recently, Zaragoza recivered the tram, but its network isn’t as extensive as the bus’s. Both tickets are the same price, even though, in my opinion, the journey by tram is more enjoyable.

You also have the possibility of hiring a bike, with bike stations in the whole city. You will need an annual or seasonal card to use them. You can get it through a website or at the service offices. Personally, I’ve never trid this service so I don’t know how the “bike hire” works.

And finally, you can stop a taxi, obviously, taxi journeys cost more than another form of public transport, but if you are disoriented and you need to come to your destination, it is the best way to do it.

MISTAKES

Correct the mistakes in the following sentences:

1.- It is the fastest transport in the city

2.- Taxis are comfortable and is a safe option if you are travelling at night.

3.- If you are student, you’ll geta discount.

4.- You should know where you want travel.

5.- There is also the possibility of hire a bike.

6.- It’s a good option depends where you are going.

7.- …because there aren’t many parkings.

Key

1.- It is the fastest kind of/form of transport in the city.

2.- Taxis are comfortable and it is a safe…

3.- If you are a student, …

4.- You should know where you want to travel.

5.- There is also the possibility of hiring a bike. (of -preposition- + verb+ing)

6.- It’s a good option depending where you are going.

7.- …because there aren’t many car parks.

VOCABULARY

Vocabulary and expresions
24 Dec.: Christmas Eve
31 Dec.: New Year Eve
1 Jan: Ney Year Day

B&B: bed and breakfast

A bonfire: una hoguera

Make New Year’s Resolutions: hacer propósitos de Año Nuevo

Stop smoking = Give up smoking = Quit smoking

Hope to do sth: esperar (tener esperanza) hacer algo

Look forward to sth/doing sth: esperar algo/hacer algo (en el sentido de tener muchas ganas de que llegue ese momento o algo que sabemos que llegará o tenemos planeado hacerlo)

I’m looking forward to the party.

I’m looking forward to seeing you.

I’m looking forward to your reply.

I’m looking forward to hearing from you.

A mobile phone (UK)

A cell phone (US)

Eassy-going (person) = relaxed

Hectic (frenético) city = bussy, full of activity

Peace and quiet

Charm (encanto) – charming (encantador)

Everybody is stressed (out) – NY is a stressful city

Stuff: cosa, se usa mucho como comodín /stʌf/ (No confundir con staff /stæf/: personal de una empresa)

Too friendly: demasiado simpático (fake, en el sentido de que son simpáticos de una forma falsa):

Too delante de una adjetivo significa demasiado, si el adjetivo es positivo, too le da la vuelta para hacer de él una cualidad negativa.

En “Me too”, significa también.

I hate doing the washing-up. Yeah, so do I (So do I: A mí también)

I am Spanish. So am I. (So am I: Yo también)

Making a request: pedir algo

To come on foot: ir a pie

Get to a place = arrive

How long does it take (you) to get to school/ to work /…?

How long does it take (you) to get from A to B?

How long does it take you to drive to Jaca?

How long does it take you to go from your home to the cinema?

How long does it take you to get ready to sleep at night?

How long does it take you to do your weekly shopping?

It takes (me)……. to get/walk/drive/come/go…

It takes me 10 minutes to get to work

I work from home: Trabajo en casa (desde casa)

To crash into sth: chocar con (o contra) algo

Cars aren’t allowed: los coches no están permitidos

To fasten: abrochar

Having on seat belt: llevar puesto el cinturón (de seguridad)

There is a lot of traffic

A roundabout: rotonda

To double park: aparcar en doble fila

Run out of petrol/food/time/money/cash : quedarse sin gasolina/comida/dinero…

We have run out of time: Nos hemos quedado sin tiempo

Get around (in a city/country): recorrer, moverse por una ciudad/país/región

To commute: desplazarse regularmente, viajar a diario

A commuter: persona que viaje diariamente (de casa al trabajo)

Commuter train: tren de cercanías

Estate: polígono urbano

Industrial estate: polígono industrial

Take over: adelantar

The best kind/form of public transport (formal)

The best option is the taxi (informal)

40 km an hour (informal). 40 km per hour (formal)

There are often traffic jams in the center

Get a fine: poner una multa

The ring road: circunvalación

A town truck: grúa (de vehículos)

A breakdown truck: grúa (de vehículos estropeados)

Neighbourhoods: afueras (barrios)

Outskirts: afueras (de las ciudades muy grandes)

Get distracted: tener distracciones

Have your hands on the (steering) wheel = Take your hands on the (steering) wheel

Pay attention (to sth): prestar atención

To drink and drive (normalmente, lo que se entiende es beber alcohol conduciendo)

Car/road/traffic accident

To text: mandar un mensaje

To make a phone call on the mobile = To talk on the mobile

To punish sb: castigar a alguien

A punishment: castigo

Slow down ≅ reduce speed ≠ speed up

Careful drivers

To drive carefully

Compulsory = obligatory

Give sb a lift: llevar a alguien en coche

 

UNIT 3.B – STEREOTYPES – OR ARE THEY?

VERB PATTERNS

Las opciones habituales de verbo detrás de otro verbo son tres:

to do (to + infinitive)

do (infinitive, no to)

doing (verb + -ing)

Verb + -ing

like

love

enjoy

hate

finish

stop

swimming

cooking

Note: We often use the verb go + -ing for sports and activities:

I go swimming everyday.

I go shopping at the weekend.

Verb + to + infinitive

choose

decide

forget

promise

manage (lograr)

need

help

hope

try

want

would like

would love

 to go

to work

Verb + ing or to + infinitive

begin

continue

start

raining / to rain

working / to work

Verb + sb + to + infinitive

advise

ask

encourage (animar a alguien a hacer algo)

expect (esperar de creer)

help

invite

tell

want

somebody to go

to study

to come

P.e.: I advised him to go home

Aconsejamos a alguien hacer algo. Muchos de estos verbos en español van seguidos de “que” (Aconseje a alguien que…).

She asked me to close the door.

She told me to listen

I want to go home (want + to + infinitive). I want him to help me (want + sb + to + infinitive).

Verb + sb + infinitive (no to)

let

make

somebody go

do

My parents make me study everyday (Mis padres me hacen/obligan a estudiar): Make: Hacer, en el sentido de obligar a alguien a hacer algo

Let sb: permitir o dejar a alguien que haga algo

Modal auxiliary verbs

can

could

shall

should

might

must

will

would

go

arrive

I might go: A lo mejor voy (might se utiliza para hablar de una posibilidad en el futuro)

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form:

1.- I am beginning______________(understand) what you mean.

2.- We might __________________(go) for a walk after school this afternoon. Would you like_______________ (come) with us?

3.- John didn’t let me______________________ (pay) for the drinks.

4.- What time did you finish______________________(train) last night?

5.- I really enjoy_______________________(chat) with my friends while having dinner in a nice restaurant.

6.- We’d love_________________(see) you again soon.

7.- I mustn’t________________________(forget) to phone Jack.

8.- I stopped __________________(do) my English homework because it was time to have dinner.

9.- I told her_______________(not wait) for me.

10.- Hang on! I’ll help you ________________________ (carry) those bags.

11.- The customs officer made me________________ (empty) my suitcases.

12.- You should_________________________ (study) harder or you’ll fail your exam.

13.- When I was 14, my parents didn’t me __________________ (go out) after micnight.

14.- We decided ________________ (stay) at home and ______________________ (watch) television.

15.- Stop _________________ (make) so much noise. We are trying ______________ (sleep).

16.- I’ll lend you the book when I finish _____________ (read) it.

17.- In the sixties here used _____________ (be) a lot of farms in this area.

18.- Would you like ____________________ (buy) my car?

19.- The policeman asked me _________________ (show) him my driving licence.

20.- I began _________________________ (look for) a job long time ago.

21.- Sally says she wants _______________ a nurse when she grows up.

22.- I enjoy _______________________(talk) with my friends.

23.- _____________________ (play) tennis isn’t expensive in England.

24.- We’d love ______________ (see) you again.

25.- I would never __________ (lie) to my wife.

26.- You should __________ (be) more careful or you’ll ___________ (get) hurt.

27.- ____________ (smoke) is very unhealthy.

28.- Could I ____________ (borrow) your dictionary, please?

29.- We hope _______________ (find) a cheap flight for our holiday.

30.- I’ll ______________ (carry) those bags, if you want.

31.- I really enjoyed ___________ (dance) with Peter at the party.

32.- Sheila would love _____________ (have) a dog.

33.- When I was a child, I hated ___________ (go) to school.

34.- We decided ____________ (hire) a car for the day.

35.- If I had more money, I would ______________ (go) to South America on holiday.

36.- My son can ___________ (play) the guitar quite well and he is learning _____________ (read) music.

Key

1.- to understand or understanding

2.- go, to come

3.- pay

4.- training

5.- chatting

6.- to see

7.- forget

8.- doing

9.- not to wait

10.- carry

11.- empty

12.- study

13.- go out

14.- to stay, to watch

15.- making, to sleep

16.- reading

17.- to be

18.- to buy

19.- to show

20.- to look for / looking for

21.- to be

22.- talking

23.- Playing

24.- to see

25.- lie

26.- be, get

27.- Smoking

28.- borrow

29.- to find

30.- carry

31.- dancing

32.- to have

33.- going

34.- to hire

35.- go

36.- play, to read

 

ARTICLES: A/AN, THE, NO ARTICLE (page 137 book)

1 I have a dog

2 Yesterday I walked the dog for 1 hour

Funciona básicamente como en español, usamos artículo indefinido la primera vez que nombramos algo o a alguien y, en el mismo contexto, la segunda vez que lo mencionamos ya pasamos a usar el artículo definido.

a dog, a university, a yellow car (university y yellow comienzan por el sonido /j/), a student, a hotel (comienza con /h/ aspirada).

an article, an hour, an honest person (comienzan con “h” muda).

1.- Last summer I went to Italy (el verano pasado)

2.- The last day we went to a party (el último día)

Next: el próximo

The next: al día siguiente, el mes siguiente, el año siguiente

The women, the men: cuando hablamos de un colectivo o algo en general, no va precedido de ningún artículo.

USE GENERALLY SPEAKING, TEND TO, ALSO USUALLY, IN GENERAL (page 31 of book)

Generally speaking I think women are better at multitasking than men. They tend to spend more time than men worrying about their children, their family and while doing the homework, other works, tasks, etc. Women are also usually more interested tan men in whole works well in their family and inside their home. I think that in general women worry more about their family.

COLLOCATION: VERBS/ADJECTIVES + PREPOSITIONS

Worry about sth/sb

Be good/bad at sth/doing sth

Be interested in sb/sth/doing sth

I’m going to the cinema at 7 p.m. (going to, to es la preposición que va con el verbo go, at 7 pm, at es “time preposition”)

Go/come/drive/walk to school/work/the cinema (los verbos van con “to”, pues son acciones que describen movimiento).

Go/come/drive/walk home/here/there/somewhere/anywhere (aquí los verbos no se siguen con to, puesto que ya no expresamos ese movimiento).

Arrive in countries/cities (lugares “abiertos”)

Arrive at “buildings” (lugares “cerrados”, dentro de edificios)

Laugh at sb: reirse de alguien

Laugh about sth: reirse de algo

I’m looking forward to the party/going to the party (look forward to: tener ganas de que algo llegue, algo que sabemos que va a llegar porque ya lo tenemos planeado).

I’m looking forward to seeing/hearing/meeting from you

To remind of: recordar a

Spend/waste money/time on sth/doing sth

Be fond of sb/sth ≅ Be keen on sb/doing sth

A is close to/near B

Where are you from? (en las preguntas, from o la preposición que va al final de la prefunta es la palabra “stressed”, donde tenemos que dar el “golpe de voz”).

I’m from Spain (en la contestación a la pregunta, la palabra fuerte o “stressed”, ya no es la preposición, sino la información).

VOCABULARY

Vocabulary and expresions

Stereotypes ≠ topics (no son sinónimos, topics significa temas, en el sentido de temas de conversación)

Heaven: cielo, paraíso

Hell: infierno

To bring up a child: criar un niño

Sb’s upbringing: criar

He had a strict upbringing: Tuvo una estricta educación

Education: sólo referida a la instrucción recibida en la escuela

To gossip: cotillear

A gossip: conversación entre gente, un cotilla

Gossip: cotilleo (uncountable: no se puede utilizar te voy a contar un cotilleo “a gossip”: I’m going to tell some gossip.

Generally speaking: generalmente (literalmente, generalmente hablando)

Tend to (do sth): Tender a (hacer algo)

Harmful: dañino, perjudicial

Slightly: ligeralmente, un poco

Whereas: mientras

According to

Almost: casi

MORE EXERCISES

Soluciones Grammar Bank del Tema 3

En general en ingleseoi.es 1º de Intermedio